This page contains the US Army Field Manual on Pathfinder Operations. FM In daylight operations, pathfinders are not inserted into an LZ before the initial assault echelon unless the LZ requires extensive improvement or. HEADQUARTERS. FIELD MANUAL. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY. No. (FM ). PATHFINDER OPERATIONS. OCTOBER
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When the slope exceeds 7 degrees, observation and utility helicopters must terminate at a hover to load or off-load personnel or supplies. If the departure heading is different from the land heading, the departure heading must be given as the first element of the departure instructions.
Pathfinder Operations FM 57 38 : Free Download, Borrow, and Streaming : Internet Archive
Additional markings and improvements are continually made until the site is ready to support the ground tactical plan. Surface Conditions, Surfaces must be firm enough to prevent helicopters from olerations down, creating excessive dust, or blowing snow.
Flashlights with wands are used to give arm-and-hand signals at night. Some frequencies may be blocked while other frequencies will not always permit operators to transmit clearly.
The exact layout of the landing site depends upon helicopters not flying directly over other aircraft on the ground, available landing space, number and type of obstacles, unit SOPs, and prearranged flight formations. Their training in emergency landing procedures, canopy control of the maneuverable parachute, and expertise m rough terrain DZs provides flexibility when planning parachute delivery. He considers— 1 Mission.
The need for positive ATC increases when the weather deteriorates, when the number of aircraft increases, or when changes in the situation or plans require it. It has a rated capacity of 12, pounds pendant ; 7, pounds sling to lifting provision point of attachment. Although these weather extremes are important plan- ning considerations, operationz variability of weather over short periods of time also influences operations.
FM – Pathfinder Operations –
The aviation unit commander determines the time between successive flights during planning. The nylon and chain multi-leg sling set has an overall length of 23 feet and a rated capacity of 15, pounds. The CC then gives the flight leader the heading from the CCP to the landing site, the landing direction, and the following other pertinent information: Also, he may not see any easily identifiable land point. If communications are limited in range, pathfinders Pathfinders should be combat lifesaver qualified to provide additional internal medical support.
Adding more large clevises as attaching points increases rated capacity as follows: To avoid the buildup of a snow cloud, the pilot puts the load on the ground as quickly as possible. However, the charge rapidly builds up again.
Pathfinder Operations FM 57 38
The commander decides exactly how to transport the equipment into the objective area. However, if there is only one satisfactory approach direction, or if it is desired to make maximum use of the available landing area, most helicopters can land with a crosswind 577-38 6 to 9 knots or a tailwind of 0 to 5 knots. At night, lights of different colors may be used to designate different helicopter sites or to separate flights within a larger formation.
When using any clevis assembly, tighten the nut by hand only. CH Chinook and its cargo hooks. The pathfinder can only extend the traffic pattern on three legs: The preceding aircraft A has taxied off the landing strip before the arriv ing aircraft B crosses the approach end on its final glide EigureA.
(e Book – English – Military) US Army – Field Manual FM 3 21 38 – Pathfinder Operations Oct2002
Direction must be given by the crew chief and the signalman regarding the direction in which the helicopter should be maneuvered. If manned, the RP should be on terrain that allows maximum effective use of long-range electronic and visual navigation aids. Eamiliarity with the terminology and phrase style is essential.
Extension of the traffic pattern is limited to three legs: To land or to take off, especially at night, the helicopter pilot generally chooses the approach or departure path with the lowest obstacles. At times the wind can achieve hurricane force.
If not already on the ground with the lifted unit, pathfinders must arrive at the extraction site in time to reconnoiter the area thoroughly and coordinate with the lifted unit. The helicopter formation continues along the flight route to the RP. This reduces transmission time to the minimum. In training, however, or in a rear area landing site, red lights should be ffm whenever opefations.
Pathfinders prepare equipment in the following order, from the most to the least important: